The 38 Special was introduced in 1898 as a black powder cartridge. The black powder load required a case size of 1.155 in. The 9 mm Luger came along in 1902 as a smokeless powder cartridge with a case size 0.754 in. Since both fire relatively the same size bullet, one has to wonder why the 38 Special has not been shortened for the smokelss powders of today. It has been over 100 years now, seems like someone would have done it.