Bingo...It is possible with chamber adapters, and it's perfectly safe.
However, it rarely works out well in accuracy.
The single shot rifles with interchangable barrels are a better option.
Always thought the .30-06 w/ a 180gr was a 300 yard elk gun??? With an appropriate bullet even at 2500fps MV it will do the job out to 350 yards. 1491+-FPE 6.25moa scope adjustment w/ 150 yard zero.Bingo...
My deer gun is a Thompson Center 30.06
For the price of the barrel and hand guard "to go magnum", I could update it and Elk cartridge no problem.