This is the Current 2011 Civil War Smith Carbine Reproduction from Pietta . The rifle was used extensively in the Civil War and was carried into the migration West with the Settlers also . Rifle is circa 1857 . The rifle is .50 Caliber , but technically it takes a .522 sized down to .518 in mine , bullet is 360 grains . Original cast bullets for the Smith were 280 gr. and measure .515 , but I find these sloppy in the cases , so I use swagged bullets sized to fit my Smith Cases . Cases come in three configurations as you will see in the photos , Brass Target case , alluminim full high power load , and the rubber/plastic cases . I find the brass and alloy cases to be the best as long as you lube the entire cartridge prior to inserting them in the chamber . I use a small bench top arbor press to seat my bullets into the cases . Brass case takes between 35 and 40 gr. BP slightly compressed , Alloy can take up to 50 gr. BP slightly compressed , and the rubber/plastic cases can take no more than 40 gr. BP and will rupture if you overload them . I stick stricktly to the metal cases . I guess you could call this a 50/50 Black Powder Rifle , 50 grains BP in a .50 Barrel . With a .360 gr. Bullet , this rifle will knock you on your A$$ if your on the recieving end for sure , and makes a handy little carbine Deer Rifle . This rifle is the example of Transitional Rifles just prior to self contained cartridge guns like the Sharps and Spencers . There is a tiny hole in the base of the cartridge case and is set off by the external Musket Cap the Smith uses , per shot . Very neet little carbine , very accurate , very expensive at $875 , but is extremely beautiful and fit and finish are near flawless as you can see on my example . Well worth the money in my opinion for such a cool Rifle . It comes in beautiful Walnut and the Color Case Hardening and blueing are flawless and beautiful too . It also comes with Ladder Style rear sight with nice german silver blade set in a nice dovetailed steel base front sight , very classy set-up . Guys and Gals that are fond of break-open Shotguns will LOVE this rifle , shoot , shuck , and load , over and over and over , its quite fast to get many shots in one minute with her . There is little surprise how many soldiers were killed by the Smith Carbines in the Civil War , this gun was state of the art fast for back then , and even now its quick with me behind it , LOL , hee hee hee . Enjoy the Pictures : GET YOURS TODAY THEY ARE MORE FUN THAN YOU CAN IMAGINE !