How often I clean is based on the weapon. I try to do a detailed cleaning of everything about once a year (fired or not).
I do not clean my mini-14 every time I use it as it is fairly good at self cleaning and I only use good ammo. I clean it about every third time or so unless heavily used (more than 400 rounds fired).
My .22s I clean pretty thoroughly every time. .22s are fairly dirty.
Revolvers, I clean every time.
9mm, I clean at least every third-time, again according to rounds fired except for a witness that I am very fond of and clean it every time. I also inspect the mags and if there is noticeable dirt or binding, thoroughly clean, otherwise just a wipe down.
My carry 380 I clean every time.
The rest of my inventory follow the schedule above, no less than once per year up to right after use depending on how heavily it was used but on average every third time. The detailed cleaning is a break down to as much as I can take apart. Very little if any oil upon re-assembly.
I clean with a standard cleaning kit with cloth patches, nothing special. I do have a gun cloth that I use on the revolvers to keep the powder marks off.