No. .308 Winchester is 7.62 x 51mm long, and the other is 7.62 x 39m long.
Either the round will push so far into the chamber that the firing pin never hits, OR, if the extractor grabbed it and is holding it, headspace will suck HUGELY, shoulder will blow out, possibly leaving part of a ruptured case in chamber.
ALSO- Commies measure bore diameters differently than US. THEIR 7.62 is more like .311 or .312, not .308. Higher pressures IF it fires.
All in all, bad ju-ju. But if you want to try it- can I have your guns?