General instructions for a generic caplock rifle-
1. Make sure it is unloaded. Insert ramrod ALL the way into the barrel. Hold thumb against ramrod at muzzle, withdraw, lay alongside barrel. Should go all the way to the nipple. If the rod stopped an inch or two in front of the nipple, it is loaded. Stop, come back here, we'll talk. Keep ramrod out of the thimbles.
2. After that, remove barrel from stock. See the wedges that pass from one side to the other under the barrel? Tap them gently, and then pull them out. There MAY be a screw thru the tang of the barrel (top of barrel, behind the nipple- pictures do not show)- if so, remove screw. Cock hammer-barrel should swing out of stock-
3. Remove nipple. Tool called nipple wrench- you CAN use a small wrench on the flats of the nipple.
4. Small bucket of hot water and Dawn Dish Detergent. Stick the bottom end of barrel in water. Bore brush and rod will pump water in and out thru the drum (you took nipple out of drum) Scrub it good.
5. Take barrel out of bucket, set in sink, use plastic funnel, pour a quart of HOT clean water down barrel, letting it run out of the drum. After draining, blow it out with compressed air. Heat from water will help it dry. Hang muzzle down, let dry for an hour.
6. Cloth patch and rod, coat with Bore Butter (or light oil if no havva Bore Butter) wipe bore.
7. Clean hammer and exterior of lock with a damp cloth, dry, oil.
8. Wipe down the nipple, reinstall. Return barrel to stock, replace wedges. Wipe down exterior of barrel with oily cloth.
BTW, the term is muzzle loader, not musket loader. For shooting, he needs to do some reading (owner's manual?) Tell him the 2 no-nos with a muzzleloader- they are:
1. NEVER shoot smokeless powder. These are made for black powder, or a BP substitute like Pyrodex.
2. NEVER try to fire a muzzleloader that does not have the ball firmly seated all the way down the bore, resting against the powder charge.
We have a couple of serious black powder shooters that hang around here- if any of them have additions or thoughts- guys, please post them. I shoot BP now and again, but not often.