From chamber to muzzle. The brush can go back and forth, but the jag and patches need to go from chamber foreword and then be removed. Remove the jag, replace the patch and repeat. When the patch comes out clean, you are good.
The gas return tube needs to be cleaned once every 500 or so rounds. The pipe cleaners go in from the receiver end with very little solvent or carbon cleaner, and you repeat until the pipe cleaner comes back the same color.