The only note I might be able to help you with is #17, regarding the transfer bar. Most of my hands on Ruger experience is with their single actions, but I have handled a Redhawk or two. I am in no way an expert, or a gunsmith, so please pardon my lack of appropriate vocabulary.
If the hammer were to fall and fail to contact the transfer bar, which is hypothetically absent, then the hammer would come to rest on the frame, millimeters away from the firing pin. If the hammer were to fall and contact the transfer bar, via the shelf on the hammer, it would do so before coming to rest on the frame, allowing the transfer bar to actuate the firing pin. Simply put, my most educated GUESS would be that no, you would not be able to fire the revolver by pressing the trigger when the transfer is absent.