I have been out to the Ft. Lee POW range (though the hours are a little restrictive), and I get down the the skeet range at Ft. Lee pretty regularly. I am not familiar with the Smoking Gun in Colonial Heights. That would probably be fairly close for me off Rt 288.
Black Creek, IW Conservation Park, Rivanna, Cavalier are all 45 minutes to an hour for me. Rivanna about 1-1/2 hours.