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Old 04-10-2011, 03:07 AM   #11
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Good stuff, Mate!! Keep it coming.



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Old 04-15-2011, 01:30 AM   #12
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The Emergency in Malaya was the longest continuous military commitment in Australia's history. The confrontation in Indonesia was a small undeclared war on Australia's doorstep.
Between 1950 and the early 60s fifty-one Australian servicemen were killed in Malaya, although only 15 of these deaths occurred as a result of operations. Twenty were wounded, most of whom were in the army.
The "secret war" in Indonesia resulted from a belief by Indonesia's President Sukarno that the creation of the Federation of Malaysia represented an attempt by Britain to maintain colonial rule. Twenty-three Australians lost their lives between 1964 and 1966, seven of them on operations, and eight were wounded.
It's called "a secret war" because of the sensitivity of the cross-border operations. Australians did not read about the Indonesian Confrontation in their so called "free" press, a principle many Australian troops ironically were prepared to lay down their lives for.


Private Cyril (Frenchy) Ray remembers what Australian ground troops endured during jungle warfare.

"Apart from the mental and physical strain, the jungle gave the patrolling soldier a pale look from being continuously in the shade and he became rather quiet after being restricted to talk during daylight.
I also became an expert at cooking rice, the daily ration containing a pound of uncooked rice and a tin of stewed beef from Australia. This tin was given to Australian troops as the British rations were not sufficient for the diggers. We carried curry powder, onions, even garlic. It didn't weigh much but gave a little variety to a dull dinner. We also learned to discard from our backpack anything which was not absolutely necessary, like shaving cream, boot polish, writing pads etc....
We got used to the jungle noises, mostly from monkeys and learnt to recognise some of the weird noises. We also walked very carefully in case we fell into a pig trap or wire trip which could be attached to a grenade or other nasty explosive.
One night I found myself looking at a pair of tiger's eyes staring at me outside my 'hoochy'. I was tempted to fire a bullet at it but I was scared that being so close to me it would jump on top of me. This staring and winking at me lasted a while and was getting more scared by the minute. Eventually, I crawled out of my tent and found myself staring at a tree truck which had phosphorescent fungus growing on it's bark in the shape of tiger's eyes. It just shows you what the imagination can do."





The communist's defeat in 1960 led to Australia's withdrawal soon after. Another communist insurgency was initiated in '67 and despite no international intervention and the fact it lasted until 1989, it also failed.



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Old 04-15-2011, 01:37 AM   #13
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Keep 'em coming! More about Malaysia, please.

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Old 04-15-2011, 01:54 AM   #14
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Thanks for the post, keep 'em coming.

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Old 04-15-2011, 02:01 AM   #15
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Originally Posted by M14sRock View Post
Keep 'em coming! More about Malaysia, please.
The Malayan Emergency started in 1948 when members of the Malayan Communist Party murdered three farm owners who were aligned with the (then British) government. The MCP were disaffected with British rule, and were angry that Malayan citizenship had not been granted to them. The MCP gained the support of many Malayan Chinese workers, and soon the threat of an attempted coup was realised with the 1951 assassination of the British High Commisioner.

Australia's involvement in the Emergency began in 1950 with the arrival of RAAF aircraft and personnel in Singapore. Dakotas from 38 Squadron were deployed on cargo runs, troop movements, and paratroop and leaflet drops in Malaya, while six Lincoln bombers of 1 Squadron provided the backbone of airl operations. As the capacity of army and police units operating against the communists improved, however, the need for air power decreased, and by 1952 Lincolns were increasingly used as part of combined air-ground assaults against the communists. One of the major military successes of the conflict was one such coordinated operation in July 1954, east of Ipoh, in Perak state. In Operation Termite, as the exercise was known, five RAAF Lincolns and six from a RAF squadron made simultaneous attacks on two communist camps, followed by paratroop drops, a ground attack, and further bombing runs ten days later. The operation destroyed 181 camps and killed 13 communists; one communist surrendered.

Lincoln Bomber A73-33 of No 1 Squadron, RAAF, on a bombing mission over the Malayan jungle.


By October 1955, when the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2RAR), arrived in Penang, the outcome of the Emergency was no longer in doubt, although a lengthy "mopping up" stage followed, largely undertaken by Australian troops. After several false starts 2RAR crossed to the mainland in January 1956 to begin anti-communist operations. Over the next 20 months, as part of 28 Commonwealth Brigade, 2RAR participated in a variety of operations, mainly in Perak, one of the main areas of communist activity. Their work consisted of extensive patrolling, watching for contacts in the rubber plantations, and mounting a perimeter guard on the New Villages, settlements which the government had established to provide infrastructure and services in outlying areas in the hope of denying the guerrillas access to their support base. Contacts were rare, however, and the battalion had a mixed record, killing two communists in an ambush on 25 June 1956 but losing three of its own troops.

2RAR left Malaya in October 1957 and was replaced by 3RAR in the same month. After six weeks of training in jungle warfare 3RAR began driving the insurgents into the jungle in Perak and Kedah, separating them from food and other supplies. Early successes for the battalion confirmed the growing ascendancy of the security forces over the communists and by April 1959 one of the main communist centres, Perak, was declared secure. By late 1959 operations against the communists were in their final phase and many communists had crossed Malaya's northern border into Thailand. 3RAR left Malaya in October 1959 to be replaced by 1RAR. Although operating in the border region 1RAR made no contact with the enemy and was forbidden to move into Thailand, even when the presence and location of communists was known.

Soldiers of 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR), in the jungle north of Baling, near the Thai border, Malaya, 1960.

As the threat continued to dissipate, the Malayan government officially declared the Emergency over on 31 July 1960, though 1RAR remained in Malaya until October the following year, when 2RAR returned for a second tour. In August 1962 the battalion was committed to anti-communist operations in Perlis and Kedah, completing its tour in August 1963.

In addition to air and infantry forces, Australia also provided artillery and engineering support, and an airfield construction squadron built the main runway for the air force base at Butterworth. RAN ships also served in Malayan waters had occasion to fire on suspected communist positions in 1956 and 1957. Australian ground forces in Malaya formed part of Australia's contribution to the Far East Strategic Reserve, which was set up in April 1955 primarily to deter external communist aggression against countries in south-east Asia, especially Malaya and Singapore.

Lasting 13 years, the Malayan Emergency was the longest continuous military commitment in Australia's history. Thirty-nine Australian servicemen were killed in Malaya, although only 15 of these deaths occurred as a result of operations, and 27 were wounded, most of whom were in the army.



Interesting fact #1: The conflict was called an 'emergency' rather than a 'war' due to the lobby from a group of Malayan rubber-tree farmers. If it had been a 'war' then the insurance company they were with would not have covered the damages that were incurred on their properties.

Interesting fact #2: In the film 'The Year of Living Dangerously' with Mel Gibson and Linda Hunt which explains a lot of the politics surrounding the Malayan Emergency, Hunt plays a male photographer. She won Best Supporting Actress for her role.
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Old 04-15-2011, 02:18 AM   #16
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The Malayan Emergency started in 1948 when members of the Malayan Communist Party murdered three farm owners who were aligned with the (then British) government. The MCP were disaffected with British rule, and were angry that Malayan citizenship had not been granted to them. The MCP gained the support of many Malayan Chinese workers, and soon the threat of an attempted coup was realised with the 1951 assassination of the British High Commisioner.

Australia's involvement in the Emergency began in 1950 with the arrival of RAAF aircraft and personnel in Singapore. Dakotas from 38 Squadron were deployed on cargo runs, troop movements, and paratroop and leaflet drops in Malaya, while six Lincoln bombers of 1 Squadron provided the backbone of airl operations. As the capacity of army and police units operating against the communists improved, however, the need for air power decreased, and by 1952 Lincolns were increasingly used as part of combined air-ground assaults against the communists. One of the major military successes of the conflict was one such coordinated operation in July 1954, east of Ipoh, in Perak state. In Operation Termite, as the exercise was known, five RAAF Lincolns and six from a RAF squadron made simultaneous attacks on two communist camps, followed by paratroop drops, a ground attack, and further bombing runs ten days later. The operation destroyed 181 camps and killed 13 communists; one communist surrendered.

Lincoln Bomber A73-33 of No 1 Squadron, RAAF, on a bombing mission over the Malayan jungle.


By October 1955, when the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2RAR), arrived in Penang, the outcome of the Emergency was no longer in doubt, although a lengthy "mopping up" stage followed, largely undertaken by Australian troops. After several false starts 2RAR crossed to the mainland in January 1956 to begin anti-communist operations. Over the next 20 months, as part of 28 Commonwealth Brigade, 2RAR participated in a variety of operations, mainly in Perak, one of the main areas of communist activity. Their work consisted of extensive patrolling, watching for contacts in the rubber plantations, and mounting a perimeter guard on the New Villages, settlements which the government had established to provide infrastructure and services in outlying areas in the hope of denying the guerrillas access to their support base. Contacts were rare, however, and the battalion had a mixed record, killing two communists in an ambush on 25 June 1956 but losing three of its own troops.

2RAR left Malaya in October 1957 and was replaced by 3RAR in the same month. After six weeks of training in jungle warfare 3RAR began driving the insurgents into the jungle in Perak and Kedah, separating them from food and other supplies. Early successes for the battalion confirmed the growing ascendancy of the security forces over the communists and by April 1959 one of the main communist centres, Perak, was declared secure. By late 1959 operations against the communists were in their final phase and many communists had crossed Malaya's northern border into Thailand. 3RAR left Malaya in October 1959 to be replaced by 1RAR. Although operating in the border region 1RAR made no contact with the enemy and was forbidden to move into Thailand, even when the presence and location of communists was known.

Soldiers of 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR), in the jungle north of Baling, near the Thai border, Malaya, 1960.

As the threat continued to dissipate, the Malayan government officially declared the Emergency over on 31 July 1960, though 1RAR remained in Malaya until October the following year, when 2RAR returned for a second tour. In August 1962 the battalion was committed to anti-communist operations in Perlis and Kedah, completing its tour in August 1963.

In addition to air and infantry forces, Australia also provided artillery and engineering support, and an airfield construction squadron built the main runway for the air force base at Butterworth. RAN ships also served in Malayan waters had occasion to fire on suspected communist positions in 1956 and 1957. Australian ground forces in Malaya formed part of Australia's contribution to the Far East Strategic Reserve, which was set up in April 1955 primarily to deter external communist aggression against countries in south-east Asia, especially Malaya and Singapore.

Lasting 13 years, the Malayan Emergency was the longest continuous military commitment in Australia's history. Thirty-nine Australian servicemen were killed in Malaya, although only 15 of these deaths occurred as a result of operations, and 27 were wounded, most of whom were in the army.



Interesting fact #1: The conflict was called an 'emergency' rather than a 'war' due to the lobby from a group of Malayan rubber-tree farmers. If it had been a 'war' then the insurance company they were with would not have covered the damages that were incurred on their properties.

Interesting fact #2: In the film 'The Year of Living Dangerously' with Mel Gibson and Linda Hunt which explains a lot of the politics surrounding the Malayan Emergency, Hunt plays a male photographer. She won Best Supporting Actress for her role.
Keep 'em coming..........
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Old 04-16-2011, 03:42 AM   #17
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The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) is a Special Forces regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions of the Australian World War II 'Z' Special Force commando unit, as well as the Independent Companies which were active in the South Pacific during the same period. It is based at Campbell Barracks, Perth, and is a unit of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps, part of the Australian Defence Force. As with the British SAS, the regimental motto is 'Who dares wins'.



The SASR currently has two primary roles, reconnaissance and counter-terrorism. They also are responsible for surgical direct-action missions, while the 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment(Commando) conducts large-scale raids.

Reconnaissance
In the reconnaissance role the SASR typically operates in small patrols which have the task of infiltrating enemy-held territory and providing intelligence on enemy troop movements. In this role the SASR generally seeks to avoid directly engaging enemy units, though SASR soldiers will call in air and other support to destroy enemy units whenever possible. SASR reconnaissance patrols can be inserted by air, land or sea (including by submarine) and have proven capable of covering large distances in jungle and desert terrain.

Counter-terrorism and Special Recovery
In the counter-terrorism and special recovery roles the SASR specialises in tasks such as direct action and hostage rescue, including boarding moving ships (ship underway). In contrast with the SASR's reconnaissance role, when operating in the counter terrorism role SASR units are only tasked with the mission statement "to rescue the hostages".

The SASR's three 'sabre squadrons' rotate between the war/reconnaissance and Counter-Terrorism/Recovery roles. Two squadrons are maintained in the war/reconnaissance role with the remaining squadron filling the Counter-Terrorism/recovery role.

Rotations occur every 12 months, so each squadron fulfills the counter-terrorism/recovery role and configuration every three years.

Vietnam
The SASR's participation in the Vietnam War began when 3 Squadron deployed as part of the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) in April 1966. The SASR's role in Vietnam was to act as the 'eyes and the ears' of the Australian Task Force through conducting reconnaissance patrols throughout 1 ATF's area of responsibility.

SASR Squadrons rotated through Vietnam on one year long deployments until the last Squadron was withdrawn in October 1971. During its time in Vietnam the Regiment was extremely successful in the reconnaissance role. Members of the Regiment became known as 'Phantoms of the Jungle' attributed to their fieldcraft.

The Australian and New Zealand SAS killed at least 492 and as many as 598 and losing only two men killed in action and three fatalities from friendly fire. The last remaining Australian digger who went Missing In Action in 1969 after falling into the jungle during a suspended rope extraction was found in August, 2008.

Australia's SASR also worked with U.S. SEAL Teams and U.S. Army Special Forces, and provided instructors to the LRRP School. Some members also served with the highly secret MACV-SOG Units.



Later Conflicts
Australian SASR troops showed a great proficiency for SCUD hunting, particularly with regard to the mobile launchers. Their modus operandi was to use highly mobile units to locate the lauchers, track it's movements over a couple of days, then 'call in the US rain' The Australian SAS who accounted for the destruction of over 50 missiles and launchers were easily identifiable by their long hair and beards, as it is customary for them not to shave while on patrol. Aussie SAS squadrons have also taken part in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, mainly in specialised roles such as sniping and official escort duties.



Weapons
Basic patrol weapons are the M4 Carbine (designated M4A5 in Australia) with M203A1 40mm grenade launcher and F89 Minimi Para light machine gun. Another popular patrol weapon is the 7.62mm SR-25 rifle. The main pistol used in the CT role is the Heckler & Koch USP, in wartime roles however it is usually the ADF's standard issue defence sidearm, the Browning Hi-Power that operators will carry. Many other weapon systems are used as the mission dictates. Up to a third of SASR operators are qualified snipers. Operators are multi-skilled and all are parachute-qualified, but they specialise in either Air, Water or Vehicle-mounted insertion methods.

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Old 04-16-2011, 04:56 AM   #18
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Aus thanks again for posting this. I love this stuff!

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Old 04-18-2011, 11:43 AM   #19
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Default Burma-Thailand Railway

Over 30 000 Australian became prisoners of war (POWs) during WW2. The treatment of Australian prisoners of war at the hands of the Japanese was brutal. They were often forced to live in uninhabitable jungle, at the mercy of the elements, endure hours of exhausting physical labour, receive no medical treatment, be starved, taunted, abused, maltreated, beaten and derided by their Japanese captors.

Between 1942 and 1943, large numbers of prisoners were moved from Singapore and Java to various locations in Burma and Thailand. The POWs were organised into several working parties consisting of 2000 to 12 000 workers at the railway headquarters at Kanburi. Two parties were sent to Thanbyuzayat in Burma and four were sent to Bampong in Thailand. The parties would begin construction on the ends of the railway and work towards the middle, creating a total railway line of 415 kilometres. Australian prisoners were used in the working parties at both ends of the line.

The Japanese set a horrific pace. The deadline for construction was August 1943. Over 60 000 Allied prisoners worked the line. 12 000 were Australians.
POWs were administered by 12 000 Japanese and 3 000 Korean soldiers. The work was difficult. Track had to be laid on an even surface. Before construction of the railway could begin, dense rainforest had to be cleared. Trees were felled, embankments were made. In October 1942, the work quota was 0.6 cubic metres of earth each day for each man. Australian soldiers completed their work quickly, so the Japanese cracked down on their efficiency by doubling their quota. Australian soldiers were forced to move two cubic metres of earth, regardless of their level of health, size, or physical capabilities. They were given no tools and were usually without shoes or clothes, other than underpants, swimming trunks or handmade loin cloths.

The railway was frequently bombed by Allied aircraft. The Allies were not aware that the Japanese were using European, American and Australian POWs to construct the railway.

The Japanese set a cracking pace by working prisoners in shifts of 24 hours on and off. Men who were sick with tropical diseases were forced to work as long and as hard as healthy men. As food quality declined, the death rate rose, and the Japanese pushed the workers ever harder in 33-hour shifts. Prisoners survived on rice and whatever protein they could find. Boxed meat was sent in. It was often half-rotten and covered with flies. The rotten meat would be cut away, maggots washed off, flies shooed. The meat was then eaten. Most men lost one-third of their body weight and slowly starved to death. They were working on fewer than 2000 calories on 24-hour shifts.

Cuts and wounds could not heal in the humid environment. Tropical ulcers could develop into gangrene, leading to certain death. There were no bandages or medicine to clean wounds. Prisoners would use a spoon to scrape out the pus and bleed the infection out. Other options included standing in the creeks and rivers and allowing fish to eat away at the dead flesh, or scooping the plentiful maggots from rotting food and applying them to the dead flesh.

Australians suffered the lowest death rate of the other prisoners on the Burma-Thailand railway. When the prisoners completed the railway, they were evacuated to Singapore. Of the 12 000 Australian prisoners who were taken to the Burma-Thailand railway, 2646 died of starvation, disease, exhaustion, and brutality. Of the 270 000 conscripted Asians, many Indonesian prisoners of war, who worked on line, at least 70 000 died.

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Old 04-19-2011, 07:21 AM   #20
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I've posted this before, but I simply cannot think of a better way to put it...

Australian Light Horse

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