Just to satisfy my own curiosity, are you a private individual starting a design company, or are you with someone like paizo? Can you even release that information?
I think you got a pretty good amount of info to get some theoretical rage increments down. I would think that for damage type, the lower calibers should probably do more piercing damage, and the higher you go in the calibers (and for hollow points) you should throw some bludgeoning damage into the mix. Range could also be a factor in that as well, the closer range you're at, the more bludgeoning damage would be dealt. Standard "bullet-proof" vests could eliminate the piercing damage (unless they had special rounds), but getting shot with a bullet proof vest can still be like getting smacked in the chest with a sledgehammer, so there should still be at least some damage involved. You could make it non-lethal damage if you want.
You can purchase inserts for standard vests that will make it more effective against certain types of ammunition, and this could be a base armor system; starting characters can buy the base armor, and buy/find more expensive inserts as they progress in level.