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Old 12-25-2016, 11:08 AM   #21
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Russian monitor Novgorod
Novgorod (Russian: Новгород) was a monitor built for the Imperial Russian Navy in the 1870s. She was one of the most unusual warships ever constructed, and still survives in popular naval myth as one of the worst warships ever built. A more balanced assessment shows that she was relatively effective in her designed role as a coast-defence ship. The hull was circular to reduce draught while allowing the ship to carry much more armour and a heavier armament than other ships of the same size. Novgorod played a minor role in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and was reclassified as a coast-defence ironclad in 1892.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_monitor_Novgorod

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Old 12-25-2016, 05:33 PM   #22
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PBS recently had an earlier round basket boat.
They showed construction, interesting.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/secrets-noahs-ark.html
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Old 12-25-2016, 08:08 PM   #23
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With the Novogrod, rumor was firing the main battery was..... interesting. Since each of the main guns was either port of starboard of the centerline, firing one made the ship spin in that direction.

I have an illustration of it in The World's Worst Weapons. No, really.
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Old 12-26-2016, 04:45 AM   #24
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Yet its more manuverable than Frederick Knapp’s Roller Boat
A Canadian lawyer thought he had invented a ship that would slash ocean crossing times, end seasickness, and make him a millionaire. Ultimately, his unorthodox machine ended up abandoned in the Toronto Harbour.


Frederick Knapp’s Roller Boat at Polson Iron Works. After a promising trials in the Toronto Harbour, the unorthodox vessel suffered a series of setbacks.

The atmosphere on the Toronto waterfront was electric on September 8, 1897. A large crowd had gathered on the industrial wharves and docks near the bottom of Sherbourne Street to witness the hotly anticipated launch of an extremely unusual vessel.

As the restless group waited, the conversation among them focused on whether or not the ship would sink or float. “Some thought she would sink as soon as she was put in the water,” the*Globereported. “Others who believed she would float could not understand how she could be steered, or how, if she does go, that she can be regulated.”

As the early evening light faded to dusk, the cylindrical vessel finally emerged from the shelter of Polson Iron Works. It looked nothing like a normal lake-going vessel—more like a boiler or large tank. It was a little under 34 metres long, 7 metres in diameter, and 22 metres around, with paddles riveted to the outside.

Safely deposited on the water to cheers from the crowd, the cigar-shaped roller boat floated well. Minus its engines, just 60 centimentres of the iron hull sat beneath the surface of the water. The ship’s inventor, Frederick A. Knapp, expected to take the first exploratory trips around the harbour within two weeks.

By his calculations, a scaled-up version of the design could be capable of almost 100 km/h. “In other words, [it] will allow a passenger in fine weather to get his breakfast in Canada one day and his supper in England the next,” the Globe gleefully imagined.

“Many ideas were changed, and it may safely be said that Mr. Knapp has many converts to the feasibility of his idea,” wrote the Globe.

French inventor Ernest Bazin tested a similar rolling concept in 1897. Drawing from La Nature, Vingt-cinquième année, premier semestre : no. 1227 à 1252. p. 244.

Knapp, a barrister by training, first conceived the idea of a roller boat while on an Atlantic crossing in 1892. Instead of inefficiently ploughing through the water, he thought, it would be better if boats could roll along the surface, generating less drag. He likened the idea to a floating log, which is easily rotated in water.

The concept wasn’t entirely original. Ernest Bazin, a French inventor, successfully tested a roller steamer on the Seine in France around the same time. His design, however, resembled a six-wheeled automobile with buoyant paddles instead of rubber tires.

Despite early promise, Bazin’s ship failed because the weight of the water on the paddles as they rose out of the water generated a braking effect.

Back in his native Prescott, Ontario, Knapp assembled a clockwork concept model he presented to naval architects and engineers in the shipbuilding centre of Glasgow, Scotland. Most agreed the idea had merit but were reluctant to fund a full-scale working model.

Defeated, Knapp returned home to Canada to resume his legal practice. Around this time he “accidentally” met George Goodwin, a wealthy and well-known contractor who was involved in the construction of the Soulanges Canal near Montreal.

Goodwin agreed to put $10,000 into Knapp’s idea, believing it had the potential to revolutionize shipping. “If this thing succeeds it means millions,” he said. “Besides, it will be a good advertisement for Canada.”

The original patent drawings submitted by Knapp in 1895 show how the inventor hoped to travel along the surface of the water. Drawing from United States Patent and Trademark Office.

“Be it known that I, Frederick Augustus Knapp, of the town of Prescott, in the county of Grenville, in the province of Ontario, Canada, have invented certain new and useful improvements in marine vessels,” begins the U.S. patent application, dated February 26, 1895.

“The object of my invention is to devise a vessel capable of attaining a high rate of speed with absolute safety and great economy of power,” he wrote. “It consists, essentially, of a rotatable double outer hull within which are suspended stationary hulls or compartments containing the freight or passengers.”

Basically, Knapp’s Roller Boat was a giant paddle inside which passengers or cargo could be transported. The steel outer shell of the giant cylinder would turn, dragging the ship through the water while the inside compartment remained still. The ends would be open to allow exhaust from the engines to escape.

The patent for the design was issued on April 13, 1897, and within a month, construction was underway at Polson Iron Works on the Toronto Esplanade at Frederick Street.

By October 1897, Polson Iron Works was still readying the Roller Boat for its maiden voyage. Despite running behind schedule, public interest in the project remained high. On October 19, a crowd again gathered on the waterfront in response to a flurry of activity around the vessel.

Frederick Knapp, his wife and son, William Polson, and representatives from the Star and Globe boarded, but the ship remained at in the Polson slip, much to the disappointment of those gathered on the shore.

It would take another two days before the Roller Boat finally proved its worth. In the early afternoon of October 21, 1897, the engineers at Polson Iron Works brought the vessel’s twin steam engines to full power and formally handed ownership to George Goodwin.

Freed from its moorings, the bright red, $25,000 Roller Boat paddled slowly onto the calm water of the Toronto Harbour followed closely by a flotilla of other small vessels and the steam yacht Cruiser, which carried Knapp’s wife and other important onlookers.

Thousands of people lined the shore, eager to see whether Knapp’s design could really deliver on its promise.

Slowly the 100-tonne boat rumbled and pounded to life, first heading towards the western entrance to the harbour near the bottom of Bathurst Street, and then in loops between the Island and the mainland. With no functional steering, Gardner Boyd, the man at the helm, was content to let the currents and eddies in the water dictate the direction.

According to the Globe, the Roller Boat’s outer shell made about six revolutions a minute—practically crawling speed—but Knapp still pronounced the experiment a success after about an hour of testing.

“I am delighted with the trial trip,” he told the paper. “If it makes this speed with six revolutions, how fast will it go when it makes from sixty to seventy, which we expect it will be able to do?”

The Roller Boat during its early trials on the Toronto Harbour, 1897. Wheels attached to the platforms at either end of the vessel ensured they remained stationary.

Knapp made a second public test of his tubular invention on October 27, this time with more paddles attached to the revolving outer shell and special chimney markings at either end to differentiate the port and starboard sides.

Boyd was able to reach a higher speed than in the first test, setting an unofficial record for roller boats. At the conclusion of the afternoon, during which the boat briefly became stuck on a mud bank, Knapp announced he intended to push ahead with the construction of a much larger, commercially viable craft based on his successful design.

The principal change, Knapp said, would be to discard the twin engines mounted at either end of the boat in favour of a single, centrally located power unit.

The second roller boat would be almost 76 metres long, roughly double the size of the prototype. “While it will be so much larger, it will not be any heavier than this boat, as lighter steel will be used,” Knapp said.

The Roller Boat was stored at Polson Iron Works during the winter of 1897. In 1898, Knapp met with officials in the U.S. to discuss the possibility of developing a roller troop carrier, and the future appeared bright for the inventor and his famous creation.

However, by 1899 there had been few tangible developments, and the prototype remained in storage on the Toronto waterfront. It was around this time things started to go wrong.

In June, Knapp announced he would be bringing the Roller Boat to Prescott to make alterations that would ultimately improve the top speed. Financiers from Chicago were also interested in building a second craft at Prescott, the Globe reported, but no more mention was made of the original backer, George Goodwin.

En route to Prescott, the Roller Boat suffered engine trouble in bad weather and broke down on Lake Ontario. The crew repaired the problem without returning to shore, but the coal supply ran out a short time later and they drifted uncontrollably 27 kilometres in the direction of Port Bowmanville.

The boat made it a little farther with a small amount of fresh fuel procured from the town, but again supplies soon ran low and the crew anchored for the night as the weather continued to deteriorate. In high wind and rough water, the anchor cable snapped and the Roller Boat ran aground on the rocky shore at Roby Head, a little west of Port Bowmanville, where it remained for approximately a month.

In July, Knapp arranged for a salvage company to deliver the vessel to Prescott where it would be shortened from 34 to 24 metres and the engine shifted to the centre. Knapp also scaled back his once boisterous speed projections. He told the Globe he expected the revised design to max out at 25 km/h.

Trouble was, the boat’s iron skeleton made it extremely heavy for its size. The open ends allowed water to slosh inside during rough weather, soaking the coal-fired engines, and the broad frontage allowed even a slight headwind to slow the boat to a complete stop.

“In a dead calm the boat worked up a speed of 7 m.p.h. but any sea kept her rolling hard to stand still,” the Globe said.

Knapp wasn’t the only inventor to experiment with rolling propulsion. These patents were also issued in the United States around the same time. Drawing from United States Patent and Trademark Office.

R. E. Watts, an employee of the agriculture department in Ottawa, patented a rival to Knapp’s vessel in 1898. His design, he claimed, was superior to Knapp’s because the rolling paddles traveled endwise, like a the caterpillar track on a military tank, pulling the boat through the water in a more streamlined fashion.

Though nothing appeared to come from Watts’ design, others patented or built off on the tubular concept Knapp pioneered. Several inventors in the U.S. used the idea of rolling through the water to design “continuous paddles.”

Another Canadian challenger to Knapp’s Roller Boat was built in Ottawa by postal worker F. G. Moon, according to newspaper reports. His design employed four large rolling cylinders with a small deck perched on top.

Moon tested a working model in 1899 and a revised version, described as “a shed on four wheels,” floated on the Rideau Canal in 1901. Despite a lack of success, Knapp’s was the only roller boat of the era that succeeded in capturing the public imagination.

Knapp received a second patent for a cargo version of his Roller Boat in 1904. Though it eschewed passengers facilities, the rolling propulsion concept remained. Drawing from United States Patent and Trademark Office.

In Prescott, the promised Chicago money failed to materialize and Knapp converted the boat into a passenger ferry for the run across the St. Lawrence River to Ogdensburg, New York. On its maiden trip, the crew of the Roller Boat became disorientated in a snowstorm and ran aground on the muddy American shore. It was abandoned on a sandbar soon after.

The story was far from finished, however, and bad things continued to happen.

After four years of inactivity, Knapp had his creation shipped back to Polson Iron Works in Toronto for it to be converted into a coal carrier. The rolling mechanism would remain intact, but the engine would be shifted to one end. Inside, Knapp added a conveyor belt to allow the easy loading and unloading of material via the end openings. He received a patent for this revised design in 1902.

Work appeared to stall very quickly and the metal hull remained half submerged on the Toronto waterfront until 1907, when Polson again attempted to turn it into a coal barge for the Eastern Coal Company of Halifax, Nova Scotia. In this configuration, the rolling mechanism would be disabled, steel covers would seal the open ends, and a hole would be cut in the top for a deck and pilot house.

While this work was being carried out, the Roller Boat again broke free from its moorings in a gale and drifted into the side of the steamer Turbinia, which was tied up a short distance away.

“How the immense weight of steel and iron crashing against the Turbina did so little damage is strange,” the Globe wondered the next day. “All the damage sustained by the Turbinia was the tearing away of about an inch of the casting.” A window was caved in, but not broken.

Still, the owners of the damaged ship were furious. They took Knapp and Polson to court and a judge awarded them $250 in damages and $241 in costs. With no one apparently willing to pay, the judge ordered the sale of the hull to scrap metal merchants National Lead Works and Antipiksky Metal Company for $600.

For reasons that aren’t entirely clear, neither company claimed the vessel, and it remained embedded deep in the mud near Polson Iron Works for years. In 1914, a new derrick freshly launched by the boat manufacturer collided with the decrepit wreck, further damaging it. But still the iron hull remained in place, a haunting landmark and a potentially dangerous hazard to shipping.
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Old 12-29-2016, 03:00 PM   #25
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Most expensive destroyer in Navy history breaks down a Second time with the same problem.

https://news.usni.org/2016/09/20/21690

https://www.yahoo.com/news/most-expensive-destroyer-navy-history-breaks-down-184811351.html

The crew discovered the casualty after detecting a seawater leak in the propulsion motor drive lube oil auxiliary system for one of the ship’s shafts.
In addition to the gun systems, a key feature of the ship is its complex integrated power system (IPS) that uses the ship’s gas turbine output to power an electrical grid rather than a direct mechanical connection to the propulsion system.
USNI News, a publication of the U.S. Naval Institute, reported on its website that the ship was in the canal when it lost propulsion. Crew also saw water intrusion in bearings that connect electrical motors to drive shafts, the website reported.

Zumwalt Armament:
20 × MK 57 VLS modules, with 4 vertical launch cells in each module, 80 cells total. Each cell can hold one or more missiles, depending on the size of the missiles, including:
RIM-66 Standard Missile
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM)
BGM-109 Tomahawk
RUM-139 VL-Asroc
2 × 155 mm Advanced Gun System with LRLAP920 × 155 mm
total; 600 in automated store + Auxiliary store room with up to 320 rounds (non-automatic) and 70-100 LRLAProunds.
2 × Mk 46 30 mm gun (GDLS).

LRLAP rounds for the guns cost at least $800,000 each, Again quoting the unnamed Navy official, it seems that the 2015 budget allotted $113 million to buy 150 LRLAP rounds and other items and that these are the rounds that will be used in the tests, because “the intention is to shoot the guns.” capable of firing a shell every ten seconds.
*The LRLAP round itself is a rocket-assisted and*GPS/INS guided shell*that weighs 230 pounds. It can fly up to around 75 miles from the ship and strike with pinpoint precision, even attacking at near vertical angles in dense urban and mountainous terrain. The gun’s cooled barrel is capable of firing a shell every ten seconds, allowing for a large amount of projectiles to impact a specific target area.

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Old 03-20-2017, 09:50 PM   #26
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Default United States IX-150 Quartz ice cream barge – 1944*

The US Navy's Concrete 'Crockery Ships' or more to the point in this case a US Navy ICE CREAM BARGE.
Perhaps the war’s most unusual ship was commissioned in 1945 at a cost of around one million dollars. It was the US Navy’s ‘Ice Cream Barge’ the world’s first floating ice cream parlor. Its sole responsibility was to produce ice cream for US sailors in the Pacific region. The barge crew pumped out around 1,500 gallons every hour! The concrete-hulled vessel had no engine of its own but was towed around by tugs and other ships. A second barge, also in the ice cream business, and under the command of a Major Charles Zeigler, was anchored off Naha, Okinawa.

At the start of WWII the US Military dusted off their shelved WW1 plans, some ships and other craft were designed and built with concrete. This time, however, these vessels were built in time go to war. Some are still providing useful service.
worked, many sailors referred to them as "floating tombstones" and did not like to serve on them. Still, some of them were used to transport troops back from Europe at the end of the first World War. Soon after the war when steel was more abundant, the concrete ships quickly became too expensive to operate. Their heavy hulls needed too much fuel to push them around and the ships became obsolete. One was turned into a casino, and another a restaurant.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Quartz_(IX-150)

https://www.google.com/amp/s/eileengrafton.com/2015/03/23/wwii-little-known-facts/amp/

http://www.eaglespeak.us/2007/03/sunday-ship-history-concrete-fleet.html?m=1 Concrete vessels also served in the Pacific, including an unusual Ice Cream Barge:

In 1945, the Navy commissioned the worlds first "floating ice cream parlor" for service in the Western Pacific. The parlor was a concrete barge, built at a cost of over one million dollars, that was capable of producing ten gallons of ice cream every seven seconds.

In addition to the ice cream barge, concrete barges served other purposes:
at the start of WWII, some ships and other craft were designed and built with concrete. This time, however, these vessels went to war. Some are still providing useful service.nto a casino, and another a restaurant.

USS Quartz (IX-150), an 11,000 ton WWII concrete barge, ferried supplies of all sorts to the Pacific, most notably ice cream, made at 1.4 gallons/min.
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Old 03-20-2017, 11:40 PM   #27
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My dad had told me that the Navy also had some floating drydocks that were made of concrete. He had a friend up in Lofall, Washington that claimed his dad invented some of them, his friends name was Leslie Comyn and in doing a search I found that the first concrete ship was built in San Francisco in 1918 by William Leslie Comyn, the ship, the Faith was powered by two triple expansion steam engines. I find that interesting because there used to be a ferry that ran across Puget Sound called the San Mateo that was used as a fill in when more ferries were needed and it used the triple expansion steam engine, that ferry could beat most of the newer diesel electric ferry boats. Since my dad used to work on the ferry boats, he knew some of the men that worked in the engine rooms, so I had the wonderful opportunity of going below deck and see them in operation. Seeing the steam engine running with exposed crankshaft and rods was somewhat spooky as well as the exposed electrical buss panels along side of the engine. The new diesel electrics were just downright noisy, we had to wear ear muffs and even then you could feel the throbbing on your body. The last I saw of the San Mateo was it was listing in Lake Union in the middle of Seattle. There's pics of it in Bing, rather a sad ending to a beautiful old ship that plied the waters of San Fransisco. Sorry I got a bit carried away, but old ships and their purposes, like the icecream ships have great history. I do have one other ship to check out and that's the MV Kalakala, the first streamlined ferry boat, it also was built for San Fransisco bay but was sold to Seattle, it was built in 1926 and had a German made diesel engine, I work on this ship one day so I have a tiny bit of history with it. Lots of good stories can be found on all of these old ships and I just feel lucky to have seen some of the awesome power plants they had.
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My dad had told me that the Navy also had some floating drydocks that were made of concrete. He had a friend up in Lofall, Washington that claimed his dad invented some of them, his friends name was Leslie Comyn and in doing a search I found that the first concrete ship was built in San Francisco in 1918 by William Leslie Comyn, the ship, the Faith was powered by two triple expansion steam engines. I find that interesting because there used to be a ferry that ran across Puget Sound called the San Mateo that was used as a fill in when more ferries were needed and it used the triple expansion steam engine, that ferry could beat most of the newer diesel electric ferry boats. Since my dad used to work on the ferry boats, he knew some of the men that worked in the engine rooms, so I had the wonderful opportunity of going below deck and see them in operation. Seeing the steam engine running with exposed crankshaft and rods was somewhat spooky as well as the exposed electrical buss panels along side of the engine. The new diesel electrics were just downright noisy, we had to wear ear muffs and even then you could feel the throbbing on your body. The last I saw of the San Mateo was it was listing in Lake Union in the middle of Seattle. There's pics of it in Bing, rather a sad ending to a beautiful old ship that plied the waters of San Fransisco. Sorry I got a bit carried away, but old ships and their purposes, like the icecream ships have great history. I do have one other ship to check out and that's the MV Kalakala, the first streamlined ferry boat, it also was built for San Fransisco bay but was sold to Seattle, it was built in 1926 and had a German made diesel engine, I work on this ship one day so I have a tiny bit of history with it. Lots of good stories can be found on all of these old ships and I just feel lucky to have seen some of the awesome power plants they had.

Speaking of horizontally mounted triple-expansion steam engines, churning out 3,400 hp, Here is a Area odditiy that used to run two screws at a top speed of 17 kts.
All that remains today of what it once was is now in a Seattle Park
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USS Quartz (IX-150) She was launched on 4 December 1943, and accepted by the Navy and placed in service on 13 April 1944 After V-J Day USS Quartz was assigned to support "Operation Crossroads", atomic bomb testing.Quartz was part of Task Group 1 and 8, a supply and support group to the testing. After the detonation The Quartz was towed to Kwajalein for study and monitoring. After verifying her free of radioactive contamination, the Navy sold her on 23 October 1947 to the Powell River Company of Powell River, British Columbia, where she was permanently anchored with nine other hulks to form a breakwater protecting the Catalyst Paper Mill.

The Catalyst Paper Mill breakwater is all concrete ships originally built as transports for supplies in World Wars I and II. All ten are the last remaining representatives of their class of ships.
The Peralta, holds the honor as THE last concrete ship remaining from World War I.

http://powellriverbooks.blogspot.com/2008/11/thats-my-world-hulks.html?m=1
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There is a odd British story to the submarine in this photo.



The Thetis Submarine Disaster

The Thetis submarine was to become a tomb for the 99 men on board her in 1939 and for the Royal Navy it was to be its worst ever submarine disaster taking place just 40 miles from where the Thetis was built in Birkenhead. During her maiden voyage, the Thetis, the pride of the Royal Navy, 99 men were to lose their lives, not in battle but as the result of a tragic accident. HMS Thetis was a submarine built by Cammell Laird in Birkenhead, she was launched on 29 June 1938. After completion, trials were delayed because the forward hydroplanes jammed, but they eventually started in Liverpool Bay. Under Lieutenant Commander Guy Bolus, HMS Thetis left Birkenhead for Liverpool Bay to conduct her final diving trials, accompanied by the tug Grebecock. As well as her normal complement of 59 men she was also carrying technical observers from Cammell Laird plus other naval personnel, a total of 103 men. The first dive was attempted at about 14:00 on 1 June 1939. The submarine was too light to dive, so a survey of the water in the various tanks on board was made. One of the checks was whether the internal torpedo tubes were flooded. Lieutenant Frederick Woods, the torpedo officer, opened the test cocks on the tubes. Unfortunately, the test cock on tube number 5 was blocked by some enamel paint so no water flowed out even though the bow cap was open. Prickers to clear the test cocks had been provided but they were not used. The layout of the bow cap indicators was also confusing as they were arranged in a vertical line with the shut position for tube 5 on the dial in a different position from those of the other torpedo tubes, this led to the inner door of the tube being opened. The inrush of water caused the bow of the submarine to sink to the seabed 150 ft (46 m) below the surface.

Lieutenant Frederick Woods and his men fought against the gushing water to close the forward watertight bulkhead, but a jammed butterfly nut and the difficulty of pulling a heavy door upwards against the angle which Thetis had taken made this impossible. They thought that unless they retreated to the next watertight door and closed it, the water would hit the submarine's batteries and release clouds of deadly chlorine gas throughout the vessel. Just as they closed the second door there came the impact of the ship's bow hitting the bottom of the sea. The ship was 14 miles out at sea, north-east of Anglesey's Point. An indicator buoy was released from the submarine and a smoke candle fired. The crew of the Grebecock tug were becoming concerned for the safety of Thetis and radioed HMS Dolphin a submarine base at Gosport. A search was immediately instigated. Although the stern remained on the surface, only four crew escaped from the submarime before the rest were overcome by carbon dioxide poisoning caused by the crowded conditions, the increased atmospheric pressure and a delay of 20 hours before the evacuation started. Ninety-nine lives were lost in the incident. The Thetis was taken back to Cammell Laird and following an extensive rebuild, was then recommissioned as HMS Thunderbolt, in time to participate in World War II.
The submarine had a considerable war record until its luck ran out exactly four years and a day after its sinking in Liverpool Bay. It was depth-charged and sunk by Italian warships off Sicily on 14th March 1943 with the loss of all lives and lies at the bottom of the Mediterranean sea. The story of one submarine, twice sunk, killing off almost 2 crews.

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Last edited by Rex in OTZ; 03-21-2017 at 03:57 AM.
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